Guide to Manuscript Preparation

 

Guide to Manuscript Preparation

 

Download a Word doc of this guide here.

 

Contents

Introduction

1. Permissions

2. Style and Usage

3. Mechanical and Electronic Preparation of Text

4. Illustrations

5. From Manuscript to Bound Book

6. Marketing the Book

Appendix: Forms and Sample Documents

Permissions Log

Sample Permission Request and Release Letters

Art Log

Order of MS Elements

Final Checklist

 

 

Introduction

We at the University of Virginia Press are pleased to present you with this overview of the publication process and to provide you with guidelines that will ease your manuscript’s journey from manuscript (MS) to bound book.

“We” are, in fact, five departments in the books division, all of which work together to ensure the timely and successful publication of your book. Acquisitions is the department most authors encounter first: this department screens manuscripts and arranges readers’ reports for draft manuscripts, championing your manuscript within the Press and to the Press’s editorial board. In the manuscript editorial department, the managing editor schedules freelance or in-house editing for your final manuscript submitted to the Press, and the manuscript editorial department’s project editors act as your in-house liaisons for the rest of the production process. The design and production department oversees design, composition (typesetting), and printing of your book. While your manuscript is moving through these three departments, marketing department staff devise the best marketing strategies for your book, and operations department staff familiarize themselves with your book in preparation for orders and shipments.

A current staff listing can be found at the University of Virginia Press’s website, where we also post Press news, submissions information, our full listing of books in print, exhibits schedules, various forms, and other information of interest. In addition, you will find links to our Electronic Imprint, which publishes new digital scholarship. We add to our website continually, so please visit our home page at www.upress.virginia.edu and our Electronic Imprint’s site at http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu.

The following pages address the questions most often asked by our authors as they prepare their manuscripts. The first four sections deal with crucial aspects of manuscript preparation that must be attended to before you send your final manuscript to the Press. “Permissions” helps you through the maze of permissions issues. “Style and Usage” introduces you to Virginia style and alerts you to potential stylistic problems. “Mechanical and Electronic Preparation of Text” will help you prepare the hard-copy manuscript and the electronic files. “Illustrations” gives important information to authors who intend to include art (photographs, graphs, maps, as well as tables) in their book.

“From Manuscript to Bound Book” explains what happens to your manuscript, and what we will expect of you, once you and your acquisitions editor agree that you have submitted the final version of your manuscript. This section provides an overview of the production phases. The “Marketing the Book” section explains how the marketing department works for you. The appendix contains sample documents and reproduces some of the forms you will receive as a University of Virginia Press author. Use “The Order of MS Elements” and the “Final Checklist” as ready references.

Fuller discussions of some of these matters may be found in the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. If a particular point still puzzles you, please ask us how best to proceed.

Welcome to Virginia. We are pleased to be your publisher.

 

 

1. Permissions

As author of your MS, you are legally responsible for obtaining permissions to use copyrighted material created or owned by others and for complying with privacy and libel laws. We cannot offer legal advice; however, the guidelines below are intended as a general aid for our authors. You are also responsible for preparing acknowledgments and credit lines for illustrations, paying permissions fees, and, eventually, providing complimentary copies when they have been requested as a condition of permission.

Because the permissions-seeking process can be remarkably protracted, it is wise to begin writing for permissions as soon as you sign your contract with the Press. Please feel free to confer with your acquisitions editor about what permissions are necessary to obtain.

In writing for permission, please use our sample permission request letters as templates. It is important that the rights granted not be restricted (e.g., that they not be limited to the North American market, or not exclude digital/electronic editions), as restrictions of rights for even a single illustration will limit the market for your book and the way in which it can be sold. If a rights holder restricts the rights granted, please contact the rights holder again to see whether world rights for all editions of the work (including digital/electronic) might be reasonably negotiated. If rights holders are reluctant to allow digital/electronic use, you might underscore that digital/electronic editions of works are simply digitized versions of the book, typically sold to academic libraries, and that UVaP is a nonprofit, scholarly publisher.

For previously published material, direct your written requests to the publisher, not to the author. Even when the copyright appears in the author’s name, the publisher often contractually controls the rights to reprint material.

It is important to note that if you are in doubt whether permission is required for a particular item, please check with your acquisitions editor or with the managing editor before seeking permission. Unnecessarily requesting permission endangers the principle of fair use and may result in otherwise avoidable fees.

We will ask that you complete a Permissions Log. Completing this log fully and accurately and returning it with your final manuscript will enable us to move forward as quickly as possible. Along with the log, you will need to send us photocopies of letters or forms granting you permission for the use of copyrighted material so that we can see that any special requirements with regard to cropping and to wording and placement of credit are fulfilled. (Copy both sides if there is any writing on the back. Keep the original letters for your files.)

No MS will move forward for copyediting until all necessary permissions have been obtained, so it is crucial that any final permissions issues be resolved and all permissions letters be on hand by the time you send your final MS to your acquisitions editor. The appendix to this guide contains sample letters for requesting permission; these samples are also posted on our website.

 

Permission versus Acknowledgment
Bear in mind the relationship between permission and acknowledgment. Permission is granted by a rights holder for the use of copyrighted material (published or unpublished, text or image) that does not fall within fair-use guidelines. Acknowledgment is your printed recognition of the contribution of material not your own, even if you are using material in the public domain or material covered by fair-use guidelines. Materials requiring permission always require acknowledgment; other materials warrant only acknowledgment.

 

Fair and Unfair Use of Copyrighted Material
You will need to secure written permission to quote previously published written or illustrative material if it is still in copyright and if your use exceeds fair use. The “fair use” of properly attributed copyrighted material is permitted by law, but the extent and limits of fair use itself are not defined by word count alone. Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976 states that four factors are to be considered in determining fair use:

(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;

(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and

(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Thus, in a scholarly work, brief extracts from published sources may generally be used for criticism or comment without permission if the source is cited. However, you should not quote at such length from another source as to diminish its value. Proportion is to be considered: to use 500 words from a 5,000-word essay may exceed fair use, whereas quoting 500 words from a work of 50,000 probably does not. Quoting briefly from published prose sources is allowed by fair use; using whole chapters is not.

Be particularly careful about the use of poetry and song lyrics. Quoting more than a few lines of song lyrics without seeking permission is inadvisable if the lyrics are still in copyright. Again, however, proportion is an issue.

That said, if your work is, for example, a work of poetry criticism, it’s possible that including larger portions of a poem, or even an entire poem, might be considered fair use when such use is critical to an essay’s argument. To qualify for fair use, however, it is not necessarily enough for an excerpt to be illustrating an argument; the quoted material may well need to be a crucial part of the argument. In all cases, in trying to meet the definitions of fair use, quotations should be pared down to what’s necessary, and please remember that paraphrasing can often work well in conveying a point.

If you are reprinting your own material from a collective work published after 1 January 1978, you need to request permission from the publisher only if you transferred your rights to that material by an express written agreement. Whether or not you need a formal permission letter, you should list such previous publication in a paragraph in your acknowledgments. Provide us with a photocopy of a statement from the publisher indicating that copyright is in your name, that copyright has been transferred to you, or that permission is being granted for publication in your current MS. If a chapter in the present MS does not entirely duplicate text you have published previously (e.g., a journal article or a chapter in an edited volume), we need to know what percentage of the present chapter is contained in the previous publication. Please also indicate the date of your signed contract for the earlier publication.

If after signing your contract with the Press you wish to publish any portion of your MS in another venue, contact your acquisitions editor. He or she will then advise you to make your request in writing to the University of Virginia Press, Rights and Permissions.

 

Manuscript Materials
Both copyright protection and the principle of fair use apply to manuscript materials, including letters. (Please be aware that these issues are more ambiguous than with published materials, however; public regulations or private restrictions unrelated to copyright may restrict the use of unpublished material.) If permission to quote from unpublished materials is necessary, it should be obtained from both the owner of the literary rights (the author, author’s heirs, or designated representative) and the owner of the property (the possessor, often a repository), if these rights are held separately. The custodian of the collection—usually a librarian or archivist—is the best source of information, including on what permissions must be sought and from whom.

 

Government Documents
Government documents (including state and local jurisdictions) are in the public domain and may be freely reproduced or quoted.

 

Interviews
You do not need an interviewee’s permission to publish an interview that you record. (Spoken words are not protected by copyright, and you hold the copyright to your own transcription or recording.) However, it is wise to obtain a release that indicates that the subject understands she or he may be quoted in a published work. If an interviewee will be named in your book, you need a written release indicating that the interviewee consents to being named. Should the interviewee wish to remain anonymous, you must ensure the person is not identifiable, taking care to change a number of personal characteristics in your text. In addition, be careful not to include material from your interview that might be grounds for a claim of invasion of privacy or of libel. A sample release letter appears in the appendix to this guide.

 

Illustrations
Obtaining permission for illustrations is perhaps even more time-consuming and undoubtedly more expensive than for text. As with manuscript materials, there are two separate and distinct legal protections for illustrations: one is extended to the owner (library, archives, other institution, or private individual) of the item, and the other is extended to the holder of the copyright (if there is one, normally the photographer or artist or that person’s heirs). That a photograph or other piece of visual art carries no copyright notice does not necessarily mean it is in the public domain. It is your responsibility to ascertain its status from the institution holding it. The institution in turn should alert you if further permission is required from an owner of publishing rights, that is, the copyright holder. However, again, if in doubt whether permission is required for a particular image, please check with your acquisitions editor or with the managing editor before seeking permission. Some would argue that if a work is discussed in a critical, scholarly context, used in the same manner as a textual quote, to illuminate a specific point, the reproduction of an image may be considered fair use.

 

Redrawn Maps and Other Graphics
If an existing map has been used as a “base” map, for basic geographic reference, but the redrawn map is substantially and substantively changed—is altogether different in final form—the use of the original map would likely be considered fair use. However, if the redrawn map reproduces much of the same information as the original, even if redrawn or adapted somewhat, if the original map is under copyright, permission for adapting that material will likely need to be sought from the copyright holder. The same holds true for charts, figures, and other graphics that have been redrawn.

 

Film Publicity Stills and Frame Enlargements
Publicity stills and frame enlargements from film and television may be used without permission as long as your use falls under fair-use guidelines. If an image is simply decorative, you must seek permission. However, if you use the image in the same manner as a textual quote, in a scholarly manner, to illuminate a specific point, the use may be considered fair use. Where possible, limit the number of frames used from any one film or show. If purchasing material from a photo agency, read all conditions printed on the back of the image or on your agreement very carefully. Be sure to acknowledge the copyright holder and the source of the image in your caption credit line.

 

Photograph Releases
If you plan to use a photograph taken in a private place of a person who is identifiable in the photo, you must obtain a written release. In addition, if an identifiable person in a photo might be harmed or embarrassed by your use, you will need a written release. And if you plan to use an image for commercial purposes (e.g., on a book jacket, if the photo does not illustrate the book’s editorial content), you will also need a release. A sample release letter appears in the appendix to this guide.

 

Work-for-Hire
If you have hired a cartographer, illustrator, photographer, or translator, for instance, to provide graphics or translated text for your work, the copyright is yours. No permission is needed from that person; however, you do need a written contract stating that the material was created as a work-for-hire, and it must be clear that the work was created specifically for you—at your direction and at your expense. If an employee creates a work within the scope of his or her employment (for example, a cartographer working for your university library system), that work is also considered made for hire.

 

Some Useful Links

Copyright basics from the Library of Congress:

http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf

 

Section 107 of the 1976 Copyright Act, pertaining to fair use:

www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#107

 

Information on fair use from the Stanford Copyright and Fair Use Center:

http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter9/index.html

 

A detailed table explaining the length of copyright term and when works enter the public domain, including information on works published outside the U.S.:

www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm

 

A brief table listing when U.S. works pass into the public domain:

http://www.unc.edu/~unclng/public-d.htm

 

Information on determining whether copyright has been renewed:

http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/renewals.html

 

Permission FAQs from the Association of American University Presses

http://aaupnet.org/aboutup/issues/copyright/permfaqs.pdf

 

 

2. Style and Usage

Please address style and usage issues throughout the preparation of your MS so that the final MS you send your acquisitions editor is stylistically consistent. The goal of consistency in style—such details as spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and terminology—is to permit reading that is uninterrupted by distraction or confusion. Like most publishers, Virginia has a house style that we apply to most books, taking into consideration the unique needs of individual MSS. You can find most elements of Virginia style in the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, which is an excellent guide to the mechanics of writing for publication in the United States.

In the preparation of your MS, please use the Press’s standards: For spelling (including diacritics) and hyphenation and for italicization (underlining) of foreign words, use the most recent edition of Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, supplementing it with Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. If more than one spelling is given for a word, we generally use the preferred spelling—the first in the dictionary entry. For proper names, Webster’s New Biographical and Webster’s New Geographical dictionaries can be useful.

The University of Virginia Press, as a member of the Association of American University Presses, strives to ensure bias-free and gender-neutral usage in our publications. We generally follow style as described in the Chicago Manual of Style; in addition, Guidelines for Bias-Free Writing (Schwartz et al., Indiana Univ. Press, 1995) and other manuals provide helpful guidelines for writing accurately and without bias.

Please alert us to any solutions you have devised to unusual problems of style in your MS.

 

Quoted Material
As the author, you are responsible for rigorously checking all direct quotations against their sources before sending your final MS to the Press. Verify all paragraphing, spelling, and punctuation before submitting the final MS. Chapter 13 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, provides thorough guidelines for incorporating quoted material in your MS. Here we offer a few of the basics.

Type ellipsis points—three spaced periods ( . . . )—to indicate an omission within quoted material. Where the omitted material includes the end of a sentence, the beginning of a new sentence, or one or more complete sentences, use a sentence period and an ellipsis (end. . . . Next). Ellipses are not used at the beginning of a quotation; use them at the end only if the final sentence is grammatically incomplete. We prefer you not use MLA-style bracketed ellipses except when necessary to avoid confusion, when the original text being quoted makes heavy use of ellipses.

It is generally not necessary to retain initial capital or lowercase letters of a quotation as in the original. Typically, the case of a letter can be changed silently if the sentence’s syntax so demands, unless yours is a specialized work such as a legal work, a textual study, or a work of literary criticism. If you wish to indicate changes to case by bracketing the letter in question, please be sure to employ this technique consistently throughout your work.

If you are translating a quotation that is itself a translation, wherever possible find and translate the original quotation instead. If the original quotation was in English, you must find and use the original English.

Finally, check parenthetical citations and source citations in notes against the bibliography.

Read carefully the section in this guide on permissions.

 

Typing and Formatting Prose Quotations
Prose quotations of fewer than ten full lines should be run into (continuous with) the text, within double quotation marks. Quoted prose of ten or more typed lines (in 12-point Courier New with 1-inch margins) should be set as extract, or block quotation. Do not use quotation marks around extracted material. Do not insert hard returns to create line spaces before or after an extract, since this will throw off estimates of MS length. Use hard returns within the extract only at the end of a paragraph. Indicate the text to be extracted by indenting the left margin ½ inch (do not change the right margin). (Do not use hard returns, spaces, or tabs to create the indented effect.)

When quoting within a note, generally run the prose quotation in with the rest of the note, within quotation marks, even if it is longer than ten typed lines. Bear in mind, however, that extensive quotation in notes is inadvisable.

 

Typing and Formatting Verse Quotations
Run in verse quotations of fewer than three lines by inserting spaced slashes ( / ) at the poem’s line breaks (double slashes at stanza breaks) and enclosing the quoted verse in quotation marks. Format verse extracts, or block quotations (generally, verse quotations of three lines or longer), by indenting ½ inch from the left margin; use hard returns at the end of each line of verse. Do not use quotation marks around extracts and do not insert hard returns to create line spaces before or after extracts. Retain stanza breaks by inserting one additional hard return and typing <space> (“space” typed within angle brackets, to indicate a one-line space break) on that line. (See under the section on typing, below.)

For unusual or irregular indents, use the space bar within a line to align special text vertically exactly as it appears in the source you are quoting. If your verse extracts include lines with irregular line indents, please provide photocopies of authoritative published versions of the original poem, so that the editor and typesetter can refer to them as needed.

 

Other Languages
If your MS contains foreign words and foreign-language titles, be especially alert for mistakes in spelling, diacritics, and capitalization. Careful attention to this aspect of your MS is essential—only you as author have the resources to confirm correct representation of foreign names and terms.

When you send the final MS to your acquisitions editor, include a separate list of frequently used non-English names and terms, indicating proper syllabification. This list will be sent with the MS to the copyeditor and to the typesetter.

 

Foreign-Language Titles
Use these guidelines for foreign book and article titles in your MS. Again, the Press relies on you as author to be scrupulously attentive to these matters.

Underline original titles of published books, and place within double quotation marks (no underlining) original titles of published articles, stories, and such. Capitalize only words that would be capitalized in ordinary prose. (There will be some exceptions: for example, in German all nouns are capitalized.)

 

Ségou: Les murailles de terre

“Kunstens uafhængighed”

 

Follow the first text appearance of a foreign-language (original) title with the translation of the title within roman parentheses. If the translation has been published in English, use the exact translation title as published, and underline the book title or put in quotation marks an article title, using U.S. title-style capitalization. If bibliographic information is not given elsewhere in the MS for published translations, follow the translation title with a comma and the year of publication for the translation.

 

Ségou: Les murailles de terre (Segu, 1987)

 

Die verlorenen Welten. Alltagsbewältigung durch unsere Vorfahren–und weshalb wir uns heute so schwer damit tun (1984; Lost Worlds: How Our European Ancestors Coped with Everyday Life and Why Life Is So Hard Today, 1996)

 

If a translation has not been published, translate the title for the reader’s benefit, using roman type (no quotation marks) and sentence-style capitalization.

 

Les dernier rois mages (The last magian kings)

 

“Kunstens uafhængighed” (The independence of the arts)

 

“Elfenbenstårnet” (The ivory tower)

 

If the unpublished translation of a title would merely duplicate the original title (for example, with a name or other proper noun), omit it. If the title of a published translation duplicates the original title exactly, follow the first occurrence of the original title with the translation publication date, for example “(translation, 1919).”

After the first appearance of a foreign-language title combined with English translation, use the foreign-language title only.

 

Diacritics and Special Letters
Use diacritics and special letters correctly in all place-names and names of individuals. Insert diacritics for all appropriate lower- and uppercase letters using your word processor’s special-characters feature (preferably Unicode characters, which are standard in Word), and provide a list of formatted diacritics with the MS on a separate sheet. Diacritics and special letters that cannot be produced using the word-processing program should be hand-written on the MS page and also noted in the margin. Please add such items to your list, to call our attention to them.

 

Epigraphs
Selecting epigraphs, should you want them, requires careful thought. To permit balanced design, we suggest you provide one brief epigraph for each chapter or none at all. Epigraphs work best when they appear immediately after the chapter title, are brief, and are used in a consistent manner. We discourage their use following subheadings.

Epigraphs should be indented ½ inch from the left margin. Do not enclose the epigraph within quotation marks. Epigraph sources should be minimal, typically giving only the author’s name and the title of the work from which the quote is drawn, and occasionally the date, when relevant. Epigraphs are never annotated. Thus,

 

Whirl is king.

–Euripides

 

There exists for each one of us an oneiric house, a house of dream-memory.

–Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space

 

If you wish an epigraph for the entire book, place it on a page by itself in the front matter (see Order of MS Elements).

 

Annotation
Please note that our preferred style is based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition; however, if followed consistently, accurately, and appropriately, other standard styles of documentation, such as MLA or APA style, are generally acceptable.

Note and bibliographical forms in the humanities and the sciences differ markedly; the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, describes the two forms at length in chapters 14 and 15. An exhaustive array of samples is not possible for this guide, but we represent common forms below.

In your final, printed manuscript, please gather notes after your final chapter, regardless of whether they will be printed as footnotes or endnotes. Virginia, like most publishers, almost invariably sets endnotes. For all single-author MSS, endnotes are gathered in an unnumbered chapter titled “Notes” after the text and before the bibliography, if there is one. On the rare occasion when we intend to set footnotes, we will still ask you to gather your notes and to place them after the bibliography in the paper manuscript, for editing purposes. For multiauthor MSS only, place the notes to each chapter immediately after the last page of the appropriate chapter; see the Press’s pamphlet “The Multiauthor Volume.” (AN IMPORTANT POINT: Notes should appear at the end of the MS only in the printed copy of your manuscript; the notes should always remain embedded in each chapter’s electronic files, whether the manuscript is single-author or multiauthor; for specifics, please see below, Mechanical and Electronic Preparation of Text, under Final Points.)

There should be only one sequence for notes in your MS. (If you are submitting a translation or an edited MS in which the author had notes in the original and you have added your own notes, please confer with your acquisitions editor or MS editor to devise a solution. Two notes series may be necessary in such an instance.)

Number the notes consecutively throughout each chapter; the first note in each chapter should be “1.”

If your MS contains notes but no bibliography, long and repetitive citations might be simplified by a list of abbreviations preceding the first note. Confer with your MS editor about the usefulness of this for your particular MS.

If notes appear to clutter the text, it is often useful to try to annotate the text paragraph by paragraph—that is, only one note per paragraph. This works as long as the relationship of the sources cited to the discussion in the text remains clear.

Notes should typically contain primarily annotation (sources), not extensive digressions from the text or lengthy bibliographical lists.

Please remember that websites are ephemeral. If a printed source exists, please use that version. If no printed source exists, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style or to the Columbia Guide to Online Style for guidance on documentation. Such sites as Wikipedia are not considered reliable authoritative sources for academic works.

An aside about authors’ names in bibliographies: use the title page of the work you are citing to represent the author’s name correctly, not a bibliography or database. Use first initials only if that is how the author’s name appears on the title page. Be aware, too, of the distinction between bibliographic and graphic representation of titles: in bibliographies, titles should be bibliographically correct. For design reasons, title pages often omit punctuation, alter capitalization, and blur distinctions between main titles and subtitles. Use U.S.-style title capitalization for all English titles in your notes and bibliography. (For a full description, see the Chicago Manual of Style, 8.157, Headline style.)

 

The Humanities: Notes and Bibliography
If your MS is to have both a notes section and a bibliography, the notes section should contain full citations only for those works mentioned in passing and not listed in the bibliography. Works listed in the bibliography should be cited in the notes section consistently by author’s surname, shortened title, and, if relevant, page number or numbers:

 

2. Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, 332-33; Imbrie, “Defining Nonfiction Genres,” 61; Cohen, “Innovation and Variation,” 9.

 

If your MS contains a notes section but not a bibliography (although we strongly urge you to provide a bibliography, as an aid to the reader), a work’s first citation in the notes section should contain complete bibliographic information.

 

10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. and ed. H. M. Parshley (New York: Knopf, 1953), 57, 199.

11. Lynette Felber, “A Manifesto for Feminine Modernism: Dorothy Richardson’s Pilgrimage,” in Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism, ed. Lisa Rado (New York: Garland, 1994), 23.

12. Patricia Moran, Word of Mouth: Body Language in Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996), 99-101.

13. Torben Krogh, “Den svære indsats for menneskerettighederne” (The Hard Task for Human Rights), Udenrigs 3 (1996): 37-46.

14. Wendy Doniger, “Minimyths and Maximyths and Political Points of View,” in Myth and Method, ed. Laurie L. Patton and Wendy Doniger (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996), 115.

 

If you cite more than one article from a collection, however, the first note citation for the book should contain full bibliographic information for the collection itself. For MSS with bibliographies, full bibliographic information should appear in the bibliography. Such entries should be cited by editor, with full bibliographic information given only there. Note 14 above would then read

 

14. Wendy Doniger, “Minimyths and Maximyths and Political Points of View,” in Patton and Doniger, Myth and Method, 115.

 

Subsequent citations of the work, whether they appear in the same or a later chapter, would contain author’s surname, shortened title, and, if relevant, page numbers. The following example also shows the correct format for indicating a new chapter in the notes:

 

4. Virginia Woolf and the Scene of Writing

1. Doniger, “Minimyths and Maximyths,” 116.

2. Beauvoir, Second Sex, 73.

3. Moran, Word of Mouth, 195.

4. Felber, “Manifesto,” 26.

 

Citations should be consistent in form throughout the notes. Use the same general system for shortening all titles. For example, delete initial The and A, always drop the subtitle, and use the full main title; or, delete the initial The and A, always drop the subtitle, and use the main title, shortened if the main title contains more than five words or so.

If your MS is historical (rather than literary), it is acceptable to omit publishers’ names in the bibliographic information, although our strong preference is that full bibliographic information be given. In such a case, first, full citations in such historical MSS would include only place and year of publication in parentheses:

 

51. Joseph P. Jones, A Dictionary of Obscure Politicians, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 1879), 2:1163.

52. James Dunwoody Brownson De Bow, The Industrial Resources, etc., of the Southern and Western States . . . , 3 vols. (New Orleans, 1853), 2:100-101.

53. Sarah Josepha Hale, Woman’s Record; or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from the Creation to A.D. 1854, 2nd ed. rev. (New York, 1855), 291-94.

54. W. W. Abbot et al., eds., The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series (Charlottesville, Va., 1985-), 7:4.

 

Later citations would follow the general humanities style; titles should be shortened, and very long titles may be abbreviated:

 

7. Hale, Woman’s Record, 118-19.

8. Abbot, Papers of Washington, Rev. War Ser. 7:6.

 

Note the spacing and punctuation in the standard humanities forms for a first citation to a journal or newspaper article:

 

38. Patricia Monk, “Frankenstein’s Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine Image in Science Fiction,” Mosaic 13, nos. 3-4 (1980): 15-27.

39. Richard Dann, “Hollywood Gets Serious: The Juvenile Zeitgeist of Dances with Wolves,” Aurora 99 (Spring 1992): 5-18.

40. Richard Buel Jr., “Democracy and the American Revolution: A Frame of Reference,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 21 (1964): 190.

41. Frédéric Bastiat, “Justice et fraternité,” Journal des Économistes 20 (June 1848): 319-20.

42. Charlayne Hunter, “Housing Is Dedicated at Schomburg Plaza,” New York Times, 18 Dec. 1974, 47.

43. HJlPne Cixous, “The Laugh of the Medusa,” Signs 1, no. 4 (1975): 879.

44. Luce Irigaray, “When Our Lips Speak Together,” trans. Carolyn Burke, Signs 6, no. 1 (1980): 76.

45. Beth C. Schwartz, “Thinking Back through Our Mothers: Virginia Woolf Reads Shakespeare,” English Literary History 58, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 721-46.

 

The following examples demonstrate the proper bibliographical forms for citing books and articles in the humanities. Format the paragraphs for a ½-inch hanging indent (see the section on typing in the section on mechanical preparation of the MS).

 

Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Translated and edited by H. M. Parshley. New York: Knopf, 1953.

Cixous, HJlPne. “The Laugh of the Medusa.” Signs 1, no. 4 (1975): 875-93.

Doniger, Wendy. “Minimyths and Maximyths and the Political Points of View.” In Myth and Method, edited by Laurie L. Patton and Wendy Doniger, 109-27. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Felber, Lynette. “A Manifesto for Feminine Modernism: Dorothy Richardson’s Pilgrimage.” In Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism, edited by Lisa Rado, 287-302. New York: Garland, 1994.

Grosholz, Emily, ed. Telling the Barn Swallow: Poets on the Poetry of Maxine Kumin. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1997.

Lewis, R. W. B. Edith Wharton: A Biography. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

Moran, Patricia. Word of Mouth: Body Language in Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

 

For historical MSS, publishers’ names may be omitted, although, again, our strong preference is that full information be given:

 

Hale, Sarah Josepha. Woman’s Record; or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from the Creation to A.D. 1854. 2nd ed. rev. New York, 1855.

Abbot, W. W., et al., eds. The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series. Charlottesville, Va., 1985-.

 

The Sciences: Author-Date System
For a work in the sciences, including some social sciences, the author-date system is used for reference annotation. Parenthetical references are given in the text: (Jones 1978), or (Jones 1978, 10) if a page number is required. In the reference list at the end of the book (or at the end of each chapter in a multiauthor work), a sample entry would be

 

Croucher, Sheila L. 1996. Imagining Miami: Ethnic Politics in a Postmodern World. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia.

Johnson, Donald, and Blake Edgar. 1996. From Lucy to Language. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Jones, J. E., and L. M. Hornsburger Jr. 1978. Essential water-soluble vitamins in the diet of dogs. Journal for Research 43:791-99.

Klein, Julie Thompson. 1996. Crossing Boundaries: Knowledge, Disciplinarities, and Interdisciplinarities. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia.

——. 1995. Interdisciplinarity and adult learners. Journal of Graduate Liberal Studies 1 (1): 113-26.

Woodard, Michael D. 1996. Black Entrepreneurs in America. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press.

 

Titles of chapters, articles, and the like may be capitalized in the same style as book and journal titles; they would then appear within quotation marks:

 

Klein, Julie Thompson. 1995. “Interdisciplinarity and Adult Learners.” Journal of Graduate Liberal Studies 1 (1): 113-26.

 

Note that the University Press of Virginia became the University of Virginia Press in July 2002; hence, the discrepancy in names above.

 

 

3. Mechanical and Electronic Preparation of Text

Manuscripts must be submitted in electronic form as well as in hard copy. Most of our manuscript editors work in PC versions of Microsoft Word; however, we can usually convert files from other standard word-processing programs (current Mac programs, included). Exceptions include Nota Bene and some more technical programs such as LaTeX. For such programs you may need to save or convert your electronic files to Word or RTF (Rich Text Format).

Although many styles and options are currently available with most word-processing programs, in preparing a manuscript, simpler is better: do not use the fancy font, style-formatting (including style sheets), page layout, bibliographic, or indexing features of your software. We ask for the electronic files for your MS to avoid having to rekey the text (and thus to avoid introducing new errors), and your MS is easiest for us to work with if it looks like plain, typewriter-generated copy. Extra styling and formatting require considerable time and expertise to eliminate and can even render files unusable by our editors and typesetters.

All files you submit to the Press should be prepared as described below.

 

File Formatting

  • Keep all formatting to a minimum.
  • Create separate files for each chapter, naming them sequentially (chap01, chap02) rather than by chapter title. All front matter should appear together in a single file, the bibliography in another. (The notes will remain electronically embedded as endnotes within their individual chapters.)
  • Do not use your word-processor’s indexing, bibliographic (references), or table-of-contents features.
  • Be sure there are no comments, annotations, tracked changes or other revision marks, or highlighted or hidden text in the final version you submit to the Press.
  • Do not assign “styles” to headings, extracts (block quotations), or paragraphs. Make sure that “normal” style is used throughout the text, with the characteristics described in this File Formatting section.
  • Do not use running heads. Instead, use your word-processing pagination feature to insert page numbers at the upper right.
  • Use 1-inch margins all around.
  • Turn off the automatic hyphenation feature. The only hyphens in your MS should be those orthographically and grammatically necessary.
  • Turn off the widow/orphan protection feature. (When activated, this feature will throw off MS length estimates.)
  • Format all text in 12-point Courier New or Courier. (It is not necessary to alter your word processor’s font size for note numbers.)
  • Use left-hand justification throughout. (Although, when trying to distinguish between two or three levels of subheadings, you may center the higher level.) Do not center any text or use tabs or spaces to create a centered effect unless a block quotation includes material originally centered (e.g., centered poetry).
  • Double-space all parts of the MS, without exception.
  • Begin note numbering with “1” in each chapter.

Typing

  • Type all headings, chapter titles, and other special MS elements in title-style upper- and lowercase letters (Like This and This), not in all caps (NOT LIKE THIS). In text, use all caps only for such material as acronyms and certain abbreviations or for quotations originally rendered as all caps.
  • Do not use boldface, italics, or other font formatting such as small caps or all caps. If you did not use your word processor’s note-making feature, format note numbers in text as superscript.
  • Use underlining for text that you wish to be set in italics in the finished book (book titles, foreign words). Underline the entire phrase or title rather than inserting separate underlining commands for each word.
  • Instead of hand-inserting diacritics, ligatures, math symbols, and special characters, use your word-processing program to produce them (preferably in Unicode). If you wish to use a special character that your word-processing program cannot produce, hand-insert it and hand-write the correct character and its name in the margin to call it to the attention of the Press (e.g., Ç macron). Keep a list of the special characters you use and submit the list on a separate sheet of paper with the MS.
  • Any last-minute hand-marked corrections must be entered by you to the final electronic files before submission of the manuscript and electronic files.
  • Do not type letters for numbers, for example, l for 1 or O for 0.
  • Type hyphens between numbers and in hyphenated words with the keyboard hyphen; do not insert spaces before or after: 1938-39.
  • Type em dashes—such as these—with two keyboard hyphens (–) and with no space before, between, or after. Do not use your word processor’s em or en dashes. In a bibliographic list, use six unspaced hyphens to indicate a repeated name when it is the first element in the entry.
  • Insert an additional hard return to create extra space between paragraphs only where you wish a space break in the book to indicate a change of subject. Type “<space>“ on the extra line to be perfectly clear. But do use one additional hard return to separate text from any subheading that follows (no need to note “<space>“ in such instances).
  • Use the tab key at the very beginning of a line to produce a paragraph indent—do not use the space bar or a default paragraph style that includes a paragraph indent at the beginning of each paragraph.
  • Use hard returns (the ENTER or RETURN key) only at the end of paragraphs, headings, lists, and each line of a verse extract (block quotation).
  • Format prose extracts, or block quotations, by using your word processor’s feature for left-indenting paragraphs. Prose extracts are to be indented ½ inch from the left margin. Most programs have an indent feature; with other programs it may be necessary to change the left margin. Do not use spaces, tabs, or hard returns to create indents for extracts. Do not insert hard returns to create extra space before or after extracts, since this will throw off estimates of MS length.
  • Format verse extracts (block quotations) by using your word processor’s feature for left-indenting paragraphs; use hard returns at the end of each line of poetry. Verse extracts are to be indented ½ inch from the left margin. Most programs have an indent feature; with other programs it may be necessary to change the left margin. If a new line should begin, for example, aligned with a certain word in the line above, use the space-bar key to align. Use the hard return to indicate the end of a line and an extra hard return for stanza breaks. For lines that in the original are run over and indented, simply let the line run over without keying in any additional indents—we will indent runover lines during typesetting.
  • In the notes, do not insert extra hard returns before or after each note. Use the same formatting as for the text.
  • In the bibliography, use your word processor’s hanging indent function to create text with the first line at the left margin (1 inch) and other lines in the bibliographic entry indented ½ inch. Do not insert tabs, hard returns, or spaces to achieve this hanging indent. If you cannot get your word processor’s hanging indent feature to work, use a paragraph indent to indent the first line of an entry, and let the remaining lines fall at the left margin.
  • If your MS contains part divisions, place each part title page in the file of the chapter it precedes, inserting a hard page break immediately after the part title. Part pages are numbered as standard MS pages.

Important Final Points

  • It is important that you observe the word count or MS page length agreed to in your contract. Overlong MSS may be returned to you for cutting. The total word count includes front matter, notes, bibliography, tables, and captions—all pieces of the MS.
  • The final manuscript you submit must be complete, containing all elements of the front matter (title page, with your name as you wish it to appear in print; dedication or epigraph, if you wish to include either; table of contents; preface or acknowledgments, with necessary credits included; and so forth).
  • For all single-author MSS, for the printed paper MS, please place (and paginate) your endnotes in the back matter, following the final chapter, which is where they will appear in the printed book. The easiest method is to do this manually—leave the notes embedded as endnotes in the electronic file, but as you’re printing each individual chapter, just set the notes pages aside, and then place them as a group to follow the last chapter. You will need to set the pagination at the beginning of each chapter to omit the previous chapter’s notes pages, and then you can simply hand-number the notes pages at the back of the paper manuscript. (We ask that you not unembed the notes electronically or use Word’s Master Doc feature to do this. It is only in the paper printout that notes need appear at the back. Consult “The Multiauthor Volume” pamphlet for instructions for contributed volumes.)
  • Front-matter pages should be numbered in a separate sequence (numbering by hand is fine). Then number the rest of the MS consecutively from page 1 of text (excluding front matter) through to the last page. Finally, hand-number tables and the captions list after the last MS page. All pages should be numbered.
  • When you have completed all formatting and text changes and are ready to send your MS to your acquisitions editor, copy all final files to a CD or e-mail the final files to your acquisitions editor or to the managing editor, according to your editor’s preference.
  • Print your final MS from your final electronic files. This ensures that the CD and hard copy we receive contain exactly the same text and coding.
  • Print your MS on white, 8½- by 11-inch paper, using a laser printer if at all possible. Print on one side of the paper.
  • Print a directory of the CD you send to the Press and keep this sheet with the CD.
  • Label your MS CD with your last name, MS title, the date, and the word-processing program, with version number (such as “Corel WP 10” or “Mac Word 2000”).
  • Always be sure to keep your own copy of the final manuscript and all electronic files.

 

 

4. Illustrations

If you are considering submitting art for use in your book, please keep in mind that illustrations should not be included simply to make a work appear more attractive. Illustrations should play a supportive role, reinforcing editorial points in the text or helping to further the reader’s understanding of issues you discuss. Please be judicious in selecting illustrations. Certain kinds of illustrations can be time-consuming or costly to produce for print production. In addition, permissions restrictions can complicate our ability to sell digital/electronic editions of your work or to reach overseas markets. Many books, of course, will and should contain only text.

If you and your acquisitions editor agree that artwork is necessary, please refer closely to this document, and please consult the Art Log, found on the “For Authors” portion of our website. It is important that the “originals” you submit for reproduction purposes be of high quality.

Please remember that permission must often be obtained for the use of copyrighted illustrations, as well as for material from archives or other private sources, and permissions can be time-consuming and costly to secure. Please refer to the section in this guide on permissions, and begin to procure any necessary permissions as soon as you are able.

Also remember that the size at which your illustrations appear will be determined both by the book page and by the reproduction size and quality of the originals you submit. Sizing may limit the degree of detail that can be represented for certain illustrations. In a standard-sized book, the maximum width of an illustration is usually 5 inches; most illustrations will be set smaller. Reducing your image on a photocopier may help give you a sense of how the final image may appear in print, to help you determine legibility even after a reduction in size.

You will also want to consider the placement of images, which are often set near the relevant discussion in the text. It can be difficult to set images that are clustered together too closely, so please be selective in your choices and careful about placement suggestions.

It is helpful if your text describes the important aspects of the image you are discussing, in case an image is not viewable in a later digital/electronic edition of your work.

If certain details of an illustration are discussed in your text or captions, please call these to our attention. We may be able to crop the illustration to focus on these details. All cropping suggestions should be marked on the photocopies or printouts that you submit (discussed below).

 

There are two general categories of illustrations: line art and photographs. Tables, although textual and thus not technically illustrations, are also treated in this section.

 

Line Art
Line art is entirely black and white, with no tonal gradations of gray (although shading can be indicated by dots creating tints of black). It can be a pen-and-ink drawing, etching, diagram, graph, or map. Line art can be hand-drawn or, more likely, rendered with a computer drawing application.

If you have created line art using a graphics program, please provide a laser printout and a disk containing the graphics files both in EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) format and in its original application file. Digitally produced line art must be at at least 1200ppi or 2400 ppi, depending on size. Copy all the electronic files to a disk (CD-ROM or DVD); do not save any text files on this disk. Label the disk with your name, short MS title, platform (PC or Macintosh), software program used, disk contents, and date. Also include all fonts used.

See below under “Scans” for line art that has been scanned. Please also see the “Captions and List of Illustrations” and “Illustration Placement and Text References” sections, below.

 

Photographs
Photographs (sometimes referred to as halftones), in addition to the standard photograph, can include photographs of paintings, historical maps, or other original documents that contain shades of gray.

Photographs submitted as part of your art program should be as crisp and distinct as possible: in every generation of reproduction, there is an unavoidable loss of fidelity to the original. This applies to electronic files as well as to photographic prints.

If a photograph is to be reproduced as a black-and-white halftone, please submit a photographic print of high quality to the Press. We prefer 8 x 10 prints but will accept 5 x 7, and they should be on glossy stock, untrimmed, and unmounted. Halftones may be submitted as digital files as long as the files are in compliance with our guidelines. (See below under “Scans and Digital Photographs.”)

Note that digital scans printed out on photographic paper are not considered of high enough quality for print reproduction. Professional printing of original digital photography may be acceptable, but because we prefer to work with the “first” generation of art (or as close to the first as possible), the digital file itself would be best in such cases.

If your acquisitions editor has agreed to a small number of color illustrations, these should be supplied as 35 mm (or 4- by 5-inch) transparencies or color prints, although they may also be supplied as digital files (see below).

On self-sticking, permanent labels, indicate figure numbers, and place an arrow to indicate the top if there could be a question of correct orientation. Apply the labels to the backs of the photographs themselves.

If only a portion of the photograph is to be used, clearly indicate your preferred cropping on both of the two photocopies/printouts of the image supplied with the manuscript. In addition, if there could be a question of orientation, draw an arrow on both sets of copies to indicate the top. Never mark the original. If you are submitting photographs, separate them with blank sheets of white paper to help prevent any bleed-through or smudging that might result from your labeling.

See below under “Scans” for photographs that have been scanned. Please also see the “Captions and List of Illustrations” and “Illustration Placement and Text References” sections, below.

 

Scans and Digital Artwork
Scans and digital artwork can present a host of problems in print production that become time-consuming to resolve. Problems in digital files may render images poor in quality. Images that appear clear and of high quality on a computer screen may nevertheless not reproduce well in print form. Below follow some guidelines on submitting electronic artwork:

Scans
Scans should be made at 100 percent (full size of the original) from clear, sharp originals, and created in grayscale (not color), with no sharpening features applied, at a minimum of 300ppi. Files should be provided as tiffs. If the original is smaller than 5 x 7, the resolution will need to be increased accordingly (typically to 600ppi).

Line art scans should be made from clear, sharp originals at 100 percent (full size of the original) in black and white (bitmap) at 1200ppi and saved as tiff files. (Again, EPS files are generally usable.) If the original is smaller than 5 x 7, double the resolution to 2400ppi. See above under “Line Art” for line art that has been prepared in digital form.

Do not digitally alter any image you scan or have scanned (including sharpening, descreening, and similar modifications).Please always use an established graphic arts service or library service for scanning.

 

Digital Photographs
For photographs taken with a digital camera, the camera should be of high quality, with at least 4 megapixels, the photographs should be taken as 300ppi tiffs, and the lowest possible level of sharpening should be applied, with no editing done to the image file. We can accept photographs taken as jpgs when the resolution is 300ppi and no changes have been made to the file.

When providing digital files for color art, you must also submit a “match” print to be used in trying to reproduce the exact color in printing.

 

Maps, Charts, Graphs
Please contact us if you are planning to use a map in your book. Do not attempt to create or commission your own map. We can recommend a cartographer who will provide quality maps drafted to our specifications. If map files already exist, we will review them, but please be aware that GIS software and other map-making programs are difficult to adapt to our purposes.

In preparing maps, charts, and graphs, use special care to ensure consistency both internally and with the text in style, spelling, capitalization, and abbreviation as well as in size of lettering.

Charts, graphs, timelines, and other such graphics should be prepared in a vector-based program, such as Adobe Illustrator, and saved in the EPS file format. They should not include color. Please submit all accompanying fonts and necessary underlying data. Please also supply the drawing application files.

 

Downloads
When downloading from a repository source, if the repository provides a JPEG, please submit the file as is. Do not open and resave, as resaving alters the electronic file. It is extremely important that JPEG files not be altered in any way prior to submission. To rename files, do not open files and save with a new name; always rename using the file directory.

Downloads must be high-resolution (at least 300ppi at printable size) JPEG or TIFF files to be usable.

 

Note
All digital images must be accompanied by two sets of labeled laser prints representing the scan/map/photograph at actual size.

All digital files for color art must be accompanied by a “match” print against which we can proof at the printing stage.

As noted below, we generally do not return copies of scans or of digital art, so please be sure to retain your own copies if needed.

 

Unusable Art
When considering the illustration program for your book, please note that we cannot accept any of the following as final art for reproduction:

  • Photocopies or any art derived from photocopies
  • Non-professional scans
  • Scans of slides
  • Prints (including glossy) produced from digital files
  • Photographs of two-dimensional media, including photographs of book pages, newspapers, drawings, other photographs, paintings, etc.
  • Second-generation images, such as scans from books (an exception may be made if the original source material is absolutely unavailable); however, if no other alternatives are viable, the author may supply the book from which the image came, for us to scan professionally
  • Maps not prepared by a Press-approved cartographer
  • Images copied or downloaded from the Internet (an exception may be made for certain repositories, such as the Library of Congress, where large, high-resolution files are available for download)
  • Digital images in PDF format
  • MS Word or MS PowerPoint files
  • Poor-quality images derived from microfilm/microfiche
  • Color graphs, charts, tables, etc.

 

Illustration Numbering
Except in MSS with complex art programs, both line art and photographs are generally labeled and numbered in one sequence as “figures.” Maps are sometimes an exception and are numbered separately in the order in which they appear. Tables, too, are separately numbered. Once the final art has been selected, place all the art in the order in which it is referenced or is to appear in the MS and number it consecutively (see instructions below). Do not skip numbers, and be sure to assign each image a separate number. Label a “frontispiece” as such and do not include it in the numbered series.

Only in rare cases will you need to designate the parts of an illustration by the use of letters or numbers. Whenever possible, refer in the caption to left, center, upper, lower right, foreground, etc., unless the Press suggests part labels such as a, b, c. Do not physically label any illustration, photo print, or digital file.

 

Captions and List of Illustrations
A list of illustrations and a separate captions list that incorporates credit lines must accompany the MS. The list of illustrations, if included in the final book, will appear after the table of contents; each caption, of course, will appear with its corresponding illustration.

 

Captions
Numbered captions are necessary for all figures (photographs and line art). Do not type the captions (legends) on the original illustrations or each on its own page. Instead, type all captions, double-spaced, in list form in a single electronic file (e.g., captions.doc). A caption should contain the number of the illustration, a complete explanation or description of the art shown, and, in parentheses, any credit line stipulated by the rights holder or owner, as in

 

Figure 8. Kenneth B. Clark observing child with black and white dolls. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, KBC MSS; photograph by Gordon Parks, courtesy of Gordon Parks)

 

or

 

Figure 1. No. 6, Robert Slutzky, 1996. Acrylic on canvas, 66 x 66 in. (Private collection; photograph courtesy of The Cooper Union School of Architecture Archive, NY)

 

If the illustration is in the public domain or otherwise does not require a credit line, please include information about the source.

Captions should typically (although there will be exceptions) be brief but complete. Use your actual text to discuss the point of the illustration. Include one copy of the captions list with the MS (numbered in the manuscript after the bibliography) and a duplicate copy with the illustrations. Include a separate memo itemizing by caption number any special instructions about cropping, pairing with other illustrations, sizing, or suggested placement in the book. This memo should also call to our attention any details discussed in text or captions that need to be particularly clear or legible.

 

List of Illustrations
Although not all illustrated books require a list of illustrations, we ask that you create one if your book contains illustrations, and we will determine whether it should be included in the final book. (As a rule, multiauthor volumes do not carry lists of illustrations, nor do books with very few or very many illustrations. The central issues are the intrinsic interest of the illustrations and whether enough information given in the list is of real use to the reader.) The front-matter list of illustrations contains descriptions that are more concise than those found in the captions; this list does not contain credit lines. (When you are creating the list of illustrations, it might also help you to remember that here the illustrations are listed together, whereas the captions appear separately, each with its appropriate illustration.)

As an example, the photograph cited above was identified in the front-matter illustrations list as

 

Kenneth Clark and child with dolls

 

Begin the list of illustrations on a new page after the contents page in your front-matter file. Type each brief description on its own line in the same order in which the illustrations are to appear in the book.

 

Tables
A full treatment of the best ways to present large amounts of detailed information (usually in tabular numerical form called statistical tables) can be found in chapter 3 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Please review the material in that chapter carefully if submitting tables. A few considerations may be useful here, however.

Tables can prove an effective means of communicating information quickly and clearly, if thought out and presented well, but they can also prove puzzling to the reader if not presented clearly. Sometimes a few simple sentences in the text will best convey what needs conveying. However, if created carefully and used judiciously, tables can prove extremely useful.

It is important that tables be integral to their associated essays/chapters, and that the data therein figure prominently in the discussion, rather than merely alluding to or supplementing it.

All tables should be reasonably uniform in format and layout, and must be representable on a book page. Titles, headings, and body structure need to be consistent in form and diction. Guard against “Adolescent alcohol-addiction rates” in one table metamorphosing into “Rates of teenage alcohol addiction” in another. Table titles should be typed sentence-style, capitalizing only the first word and proper nouns. Exercise special care so that proper names, key terms, even single words used in the tables match those used in the text—and of course in other tables.

Abbreviations can be useful to keep columns readable and their size manageable. Apply abbreviations logically and consistently within a single table and among tables.

Like everything else in the MS, tables should be typed double-spaced throughout, even if this results in running a large table onto several sheets. Use the same typeface and size, 12-point Courier New, used elsewhere in the MS.

Each table should be in its own electronic file, identified with the table number and author last name: for example, table01Smith.doc, table02Smith.doc, etc.

Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are referenced in the text and numbered separately from other artwork, that is, as “tables.” Unlike note numbers (which start with 1 in each chapter), table numbers continue consecutively through the text, continuing from one chapter to the next. Two types of MSS are exceptions to this rule: a collection of pieces by various authors, and a monograph with an unusually large number of tables. In these, a system of double enumeration should be used: table 3.4 would be the fourth table in the third chapter.

Note that table titles, unlike figure or photo captions, are typed as part of the table file itself. Do not place table titles with captions for other art.

Each table should have an accompanying text reference (see the next section). Please identify the position of each table in the text using the system given in the section below, “Illustration Placement and Text References.”

If your MS contains many tables, create a list titled “Tables” on a new page in the front matter after the contents page and after the list of illustrations (if any).

If you have any questions about the construction of tables, please consult your acquisitions editor or the MS editor.

 

Illustration Placement and Text References
All artwork (line art, photographs, and tables) must have its placement flagged in the MS. To indicate illustration placement, type the figure number in angle brackets on a separate line just below the paragraph to which you would like the art keyed, like this:

<fig. 1>

A separate issue is whether the text itself will contain references to the illustrations. All tables must have corresponding text references; much other art will, as well. Always spell out the word “table”; abbreviate “figure” when it appears within parentheses in your text:

 

(fig. 3)

(table 7)

As table 6 indicates, fewer . . .

The expedition’s route is shown in figure 2.

 

Jacket or Cover Art
If your hardcover book is to be jacketed, or if the Press is publishing your work as a paperback book, your acquisitions editor will ask for your ideas about jacket or cover art, for our consideration. If your image suggestion is approved and it is agreed that you will supply the art, please send a reproduction-quality black-and-white print or color transparency, as appropriate and agreed on, to your acquisitions editor. Enclose with the cover illustration a sheet with the caption, including complete credit line, and a photocopy of the letter granting permission. (In such cases you are also typically responsible for permissions fees.) Your request for permission from the rights holder must stipulate that the art will be used as cover or jacket art.

 

Final Points on Submitting Artwork

  • Please submit all final “original” art—photographic prints, transparencies, and/or electronic files—when you submit your final MS for editing.
  • If your illustration program is substantial, original art and an accompanying Art Log should be submitted at least two months before the final MS is due. This permits a thorough review of all materials, and in the event that some art is determined to be inadequate for print reproduction, allows you time to find replacements.
  • All images should be saved on a single disk (CD or DVD); text files and table files should be submitted on a separate disk. Each piece of electronic art and each table should be saved in its own electronic file.
  • Two sets of labeled and numbered copies (either photocopies or printouts of the electronic files, with identification marked on the front), two sets of captions, an Art Log, a Permissions Log, and copies of any needed permission letters should accompany the final MS and art.
  • All original art should be appropriately labeled and numbered. Hard copies (e.g., glossy photographs) should be labeled on the back with a figure number and description. Electronic files should be given filenames that incorporate the figure number, your last name, and the appropriate extension for the format (e.g., 01Smith.tif, 02Smith.tif). Table files should be similarly named (table01Smith.doc, table02Smith.doc).
  • Copies of illustrations, tables, and captions should be pulled out from the interior of the MS; please do not intersperse copies (or electronic versions) of individual illustrations, tables, or captions in the manuscript itself.
  • Copies (photocopies or printouts) should be numbered and labeled on the front (Fig. 5, Blenheim garden; include filename if from an electronic file). All information on cropping should be clearly marked on the copies.

Note: Although our production department makes all good effort to handle art expeditiously and carefully, we cannot be responsible for lease fees or damaged art. We do not return CD-ROMs with digital art unless specifically asked to do so early in the process. Please retain a copy, for your own use, of all electronic files.

 

 

5. From Manuscript to Bound Book

This section gives an overview of the publication processes each MS goes through. Familiarizing yourself with the Order of MS Elements in the appendix will help orient you to publishing terminology such as “front matter.”

 

Copyediting
When you have sent us your MS (front matter, text, back matter, tables, and illustrations captions—one hard copy plus electronic files), illustrations (originals and two sets of labeled photocopies; graphics CD as appropriate), and photocopies of letters of permission for both text and illustrations, our work at the Press continues in earnest. Your acquisitions editor reviews your final revisions and double-checks the completeness of material. The original MS is then conveyed to the managing editor for assignment to an in-house MS project editor and, most typically, a freelance copyeditor. (The MS is also conveyed to the production department for estimating and preliminary assessment.) The copyeditor will edit your manuscript, while the in-house project editor will oversee the editing and will continue as your in-house liaison throughout the editorial and production processes.

The MS editor or freelance copyeditor handling your project will proceed with all due care and speed, and the edited MS will be sent to you for your final review. Treat this as the first stage of page proof: all final changes should be made, all additions made, all errors corrected, all quotations verified, and all queries answered, without exception.

If your MS has been electronically edited, as is most often the case, you will be e-mailed the edited, redlined files, asked to print them out, and either to respond to the editing on paper, sending off the marked-up printout to your copyeditor, or to make your changes electronically, in the redlined files themselves, returning those files to the copyeditor by e-mail. (You will receive detailed instructions from the copyeditor on how to proceed with your review.) If your MS has been pencil edited, the editor will likely ask you to make changes and insertions directly on the paper MS itself. It is expensive and time-consuming to make changes once type is set, so it is crucial that your changes at this stage be complete. If you wish to make changes after this stage, we must charge you for them.

After you have reviewed the edited MS, you will return it to the freelance editor or to the in-house project editor for the “cleanup” stage. (It is wise to retain a photocopied version of the edited manuscript, with your final markings on it, or the final electronic files you submit to the editor, for possible future reference.) During cleanup, the editor incorporates your changes, editing any new copy to be consistent with the style used elsewhere in the MS. The editor may well contact you if she or he has further questions. If your MS has been edited out of house, after cleanup the freelance editor returns your edited MS to the in-house liaison, who scans the work.

We strongly encourage authors to begin work on their index (if the book is to have an index) soon after their review of the copyedited MS is complete. It can take several months to prepare an effective index. If you cannot create your own index, we recommend that you engage a professional indexer for this important task. (We would be happy to provide you with contact information for professional indexers with whom we have worked.)

Although you cannot complete the index until you have page proofs, you should select the terms to be included in the index and set them up in a word-processor file beforehand. Bear in mind that terms, names, and titles corrected during editing should be corrected in your index, as well. Once you have the page proofs in hand, you need only add the page numbers and print the final index copy. Our guide for indexing is the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. (Offprints of the indexing chapter, Univ. of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-83614-0, can be ordered from your local bookstore or online for a minimal fee.) Please note that the final printout should be in Courier or Courier New and fully double-spaced in a one-column format; we prefer the run-in style for subentries. We would also like you to submit the electronic file for the index. Refer to the Press’s pamphlet “Handling Proof and Creating the Index” for details about index style and formatting.

 

Design and Composition
From the editor, the MS moves into our production department for design and composition (typesetting). We nearly always go directly to page proofs from the edited MS. You will be sent a tentative proof schedule soon after your MS is transmitted to the production department so that you can reserve time for proofreading the typeset pages and finalizing the index. (For the average manuscript, we typically allow about four weeks.) We will often send you a copy of sample pages, to give you a sense of the overall text design. Your MS editor will send you the Press’s pamphlet “Handling Proof and Creating the Index” to assist you in proofreading and styling the index; the pamphlet is also posted on our website. Please note that the Press does not arrange professional proofreading for typeset pages: authors are responsible for comparing the page proof character by character with the MS to ensure that all text has been set correctly and accurately. Please do not underestimate the time required to proofread the typeset pages. (Please let us know if you are interested in hiring a professional proofreader; we would be happy to give you some recommendations.)

If your book has illustrations, bear in mind that the illustrations you see in the page proofs are “For Placement Only” (FPO) and do not represent the illustration quality in the final book. Textual material such as tables will, of course, look as they will in the finished book.

Revisions or corrections in proof are expensive and time-consuming to make. Printers correct their own errors, but they charge for further revisions or corrections by the author (author’s alterations or AAs), which can also delay the book production schedule. We do allow authors a percentage of the original cost of composition for such changes, billing you for any alterations in excess of that amount. For example, if composition costs $2,000 and if the allowance stipulated in your contract is 5 percent, we absorb the costs of such corrections up to $100, but you as author will be billed for changes in excess of that amount. Typesetters’ rates vary, but a single, minor change will cost several dollars. It is wise to remember that even a small insertion may require resetting an entire paragraph and may even cause repaging (which in turn wreaks havoc with the index). It is in the interests of all that AAs be kept to a minimum.

 

Final Production Stages
Although page proofs are the last you see until you receive the finished book, our work on your book is far from over. Your MS editor, or project editor, edits the index and examines and approves all stages of corrected proof, index proof, and bluelines (generated at the final stage of production before printing begins). He or she sends you a PDF or photocopy of the jacket or cover sketch (typically, sometime after page proofs are sent to you). Your acquisitions editor, the MS editor, and marketing staff check jacket copy and other material regarding the publication and marketing of your book.

 

Return of the MS and Art
Your MS editor will typically return all original art to you within a few months of your book’s publication. However, if you do not instruct us otherwise within two months after your book is published, we will destroy your original MS (hard copy; the original CD will likely already have been discarded) and all proof sets. We generally do not return digital art.

 

 

6. Marketing the Book

The marketing department ensures that you are involved in the process of marketing your book. Very early in the process we ask you to complete a marketing questionnaire. Your detailed answers to the questions regarding audience, selling points, promotional venues, review vehicles, and professional networks help us construct a marketing plan specific to your book and based on five key elements: bookstore sales, direct mail, advertising, exhibits, and publicity. This last element may include not only traditional print media but also digital/electronic media and marketing opportunities offered by the Internet.

We seek your advice on appropriate blurbs for the book jacket and for use in advertisements, and we send the catalog copy for your review. Timely return of all materials ensures that you remain an active partner in the publishing process. Shortly after publication of your book, we send you a letter outlining various aspects of the plan and indicate where review copies have been sent and where ads have been placed. At that time we solicit your input again: we ask for additional marketing strategies that may have occurred to you since you submitted the marketing questionnaire, and we ask you to inform us of public appearances or conference presentations you plan to make, especially those offering book display or selling opportunities.

At Virginia, marketing is an integral part of the publishing process. In consequence of this belief and commitment, the marketing department seeks contact with author, editors, and designer as your book moves from manuscript to finished book and beyond.


Appendix: Forms and Sample Documents

 

 

 

Sample Permission Request Letters

Both letters that follow consider the information that rights holders need in order to evaluate and process your request. Many publishers, museums, and other formal repositories have their own forms that they will ask you to complete. Adapt these letters as appropriate to suit your purposes. It is a good idea to send a duplicate letter, for the rights-holder to retain, and a self-addressed, stamped envelope, for return of the signed form.

It is important that the rights granted not be restricted (e.g., that they not be limited to the North American market, or not exclude digital/electronic editions), as restrictions of rights for even a single illustration will limit the market for your book and the way in which it can be sold. If a rights holder restricts the rights granted, please contact the rights holder again to see whether world rights for all editions of the work (including digital/electronic) might be reasonably negotiated. (And if rights holders are reluctant to allow digital/electronic use, please underscore that digital/electronic editions of works are simply digitized versions of the book, typically sold to academic libraries, and that UVaP is a nonprofit, scholarly publisher.)
1. Permission for Unpublished Illustrative or Textual Material Held in a Repository (museum, library, private papers, etc.)

[date]

[your return address, with phone and fax numbers]

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

 

In a book I am preparing to be entitled [working title] {indicate if you are the editor of a volume authored by another}, scheduled for publication in [year] by the University of Virginia Press, I would like to include the following material/materials, which is/are in your holdings:

 

{for text: specify by description, collection name, holding number, etc., as necessary to provide a full description of the items}

 

{for illustrations: specify by description, collection name, holding number, etc., as necessary to provide a full description of the items; if you can, provide photocopies of images for which you request permission}

 

I request nonexclusive world rights to use this material {as jacket or cover art for my book} {OR} {as part of my work} published by the University of Virginia Press or its licensees, in all languages and for all editions and formats, including digital/electronic, and in any print or online advertising and marketing materials promoting this book. Because UVaP is a nonprofit scholarly publisher and because my book will be published in a small edition, 000-0000 {ask your acquisitions editor for an estimate of the print run}, I hope you will waive any fees.

 

Please indicate your agreement by signing and returning this letter to me, specifying any credit line or other conditions you may require.

 

If you do not hold the rights for these texts/images, please forward this letter to the rights holder or inform me whom I should contact.

 

 

Sincerely yours,

 

[your signature]

[your name]

 

agreed to and accepted:

 

by date

 

credit and/or copyright notice:
2. Permission for Published Illustrative or Textual Material

[date]

[your return address, with phone and fax numbers]

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

 

In a book I am preparing to be entitled [working title] {indicate if you are the editor of a volume authored by another}, scheduled for publication in [year] by the University of Virginia Press, I would like to include the following material, which originally appeared in [title] by [author or editor], published in [year]:

 

{for text: describe material by page and paragraph number, indicating start and end quotations}

 

{for illustrations: if you can, provide photocopies of images for which you request permission}

 

{if you wrote the material but the publisher retained copyright, also indicate here whether you are reproducing the original exactly or whether you have changed the original; indicate what percentage of the original is duplicated exactly in your new MS}

 

I request nonexclusive world rights to use this material {as jacket or cover art for my book} {OR} {as part of my work} published by the University of Virginia Press or its licensees, in all languages and for all editions and formats, including digital/electronic, and in any print or online advertising and marketing materials promoting this book. Because UVaP is a nonprofit scholarly publisher and because my book will be published in a small edition, 000-0000 {ask your acquisitions editor for an estimate of the print run}, I hope you will waive any fees.

 

Please indicate your agreement by signing and returning this letter to me, specifying any credit line or other conditions you may require.

 

If you do not hold the rights for these texts/images, please forward this letter to the rights holder or inform me whom I should contact.

 

 

Sincerely yours,

 

[your signature]

[your name]

 

agreed to and accepted:

 

by date

credit and/or copyright notice:
Sample Release Letters
Adapt the following sample release letters as appropriate to suit your purposes. It is a good idea to send a duplicate letter, for the rights-holder to retain, and a self-addressed, stamped envelope, for return of the signed form.

It is important that the rights granted not be restricted (e.g., that they not be limited to the North American market, or not exclude digital/electronic editions), as restrictions of rights for even a single illustration will limit the market for your book and the way in which it can be sold. If a rights holder restricts the rights granted, please contact the rights holder again to see whether world rights for all editions of the work (including digital/electronic) might be reasonably negotiated. (And if rights holders are reluctant to allow digital/electronic use, please underscore that digital/electronic editions of works are simply digitized versions of the book, typically sold to academic libraries, and that UVaP is a nonprofit, scholarly publisher.)
3. Release for Photograph

[date]

[your return address, with phone and fax numbers]

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

 

In a book I am preparing to be entitled [working title] {indicate if you are the editor of a volume authored by another}, scheduled for publication in [year] by the University of Virginia Press, I would like to include the following material:

 

{describe photograph; describe the relation of the image to your text/what in your text you intend the photograph to illustrate }

 

I include a photocopy of the illustration I intend to use in the book. {for jacket or cover art only}I also intend to use this image on the book’s jacket/cover.

 

The University of Virginia Press is a nonprofit scholarly publisher, and my book will be published in an edition of 000-0000 copies {ask your acquisitions editor for an estimate of the print run}. This work will be published in the United States and other countries. It may later be published in other editions, including digital/electronic and book club editions. In addition, portions may appear in published reviews or in advertising materials.

 

Please indicate your agreement to my publishing the attached image by signing and returning this letter to me.

 

Sincerely yours,

 

[your signature]

[your name]

 

agreed to and accepted:

 

by date


4. Release for Interview

[date]

[your return address, with phone and fax numbers]

 

Dear Sir or Madam:

 

In a book I am preparing to be entitled [working title] {indicate if you are the editor of a volume authored by another}, scheduled for publication in [year] by the University of Virginia Press, I would like to include the following material:

 

{give date and location of interview; explain how you intend to use the interview material in relation to your book’s text }

 

I include a printout of the portion of the interview transcript I intend to use in the book. Please correct any errors that you see. {if applicable} I will do my best to preserve your anonymity.

 

The University of Virginia Press is a nonprofit scholarly publisher, and my book will be published in an edition of 000-0000 copies {ask your acquisitions editor for an estimate of the print run}. This work will be published in the United States and other countries. It may later be published in other editions, including digital/electronic and book club editions. In addition, portions may appear in published reviews or in advertising materials.

 

Please indicate your agreement to my publishing the interview by signing and returning this letter and, if applicable, the corrected transcript to me.

 

Sincerely yours,

 

[your signature]

[your name]

 

agreed to and accepted:

 

by date

 

 

Order of MS Elements

Elements in most MSS must follow the order given below. Of course, not all MSS contain all elements, and some variation may be necessary for particular MSS. However, unless your acquisitions editor or the managing editor advises you otherwise, retain the following order of elements when assembling and printing your final MS. Refer also to the final points in the section “Mechanical and Electronic Preparation of Text.”

Front matter (hand-number all pages consecutively)

title page (required, including your name as you wish it to appear in print)

dedication

epigraph

table of contents (required)

list of illustrations

list of tables

foreword

preface

acknowledgments

introduction (if very brief and not part of the text)

editorial method

note on the translation

chronology

list of (text) abbreviations

Text (start with page 1 and number consecutively to the end of the MS using word-processing page-numbering feature)
introduction (if not part of the front matter)

text chapters

Back matter (continue pagination)
appendices

notes

glossary

bibliography

list of contributors (for multiauthor volumes only)

Tables and illustrations captions (number in sequence)
tables (hand-number pages)

captions (hand-number pages)

Artwork (number in sequence)
original artwork (line art and photographs) (number on back)

two sets of photocopies (labeled/numbered on front)

 

 

Final Checklist

Use this list as a ready reference for preparing to send your final MS to your acquisitions editor.

 

One hard copy of the MS, printed from the final MS files

front matter

text

back matter

tables

illustrations captions

 

Labeled CD with all MS text files

List of MS CD files

 

List of diacritics

List of frequently used foreign words

 

Art Log

Labeled computer CD with graphics files, if any

List of graphics CD files

 

Originals of complete art (labeled and numbered)

Two sets of photocopies of the art (numbered clearly on the front)

 

Jacket art

Two photocopies of jacket art

 

Permissions Log

Photocopies of letters of necessary permissions for all art, all previously published text, and all MS materials not your own (except those identified as falling under fair-use definitions)

 

 

 

 

University of Virginia Press     for US Mail:

210 Sprigg Lane               P.O. Box 400318

Charlottesville, VA  22903     Charlottesville, VA 22904-4318

 

434.924.3468, fax 434.982.2655

e-mail: upressva@virginia.edu

www.upress.virginia.edu