Illustrations Information


Illustrations Information


Download a Word doc of these instructions here.


If you are considering submitting art for use in your book, please keep in mind that illustrations should not be included simply to make a work appear more attractive. Illustrations should play a supportive role, reinforcing editorial points in the text or helping to further the reader’s understanding of issues you discuss. Please be judicious in selecting illustrations. Certain kinds of illustrations can be time-consuming or costly to produce for print production. In addition, permissions restrictions can complicate our ability to sell digital/electronic editions of your work or to reach overseas markets. Many books, of course, will and should contain only text.

If you and your acquisitions editor agree that artwork is necessary, please refer closely to this document, and please consult the Art Log, found on the “For Authors” portion of our Web site.  It is important that the “originals” you submit for reproduction purposes be of high quality.

Please remember that permission must often be obtained for the use of copyrighted illustrations, as well as for material from archives or other private sources, and permissions can be time-consuming and costly to secure. Please refer to the section in this guide on permissions, and begin to procure any necessary permissions as soon as you are able.

Also remember that the size at which your illustrations appear will be determined both by the book page and by the reproduction size and quality of the originals you submit. Sizing may limit the degree of detail that can be represented for certain illustrations. In a standard-sized book, the maximum width of an illustration is usually 5 inches; most illustrations will be set smaller. Reducing your image on a photocopier may help give you a sense of how the final image may appear in print, to help you determine legibility even after a reduction in size.

You will also want to consider the placement of images, which are often set near the relevant discussion in the text. It can be difficult to set images that are clustered together too closely, so please be selective in your choices and careful about placement suggestions.

It is helpful if your text describes the important aspects of the image you are discussing, in case an image is not viewable in a later digital/electronic edition of your work.

If certain details of an illustration are discussed in your text or captions, please call these to our attention. We may be able to crop the illustration to focus on these details. All cropping suggestions should be marked on the photocopies or printouts that you submit (discussed below).


There are two general categories of illustrations: line art and photographs. Tables, although textual and thus not technically illustrations, are also treated in this section.


Line Art
Line art is entirely black and white, with no tonal gradations of gray (although shading can be indicated by dots creating tints of black). It can be a pen-and-ink drawing, etching, diagram, graph, or map. Line art can be hand-drawn or, more likely, rendered with a computer drawing application.

If you have created line art using a graphics program, please provide a laser printout and a disk containing the graphics files both in EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) format and in its original application file. Digitally produced line art must be at at least 1200ppi or 2400 ppi, depending on size. Copy all the electronic files to a disk (CD-ROM or DVD); do not save any text files on this disk. Label the disk with your name, short MS title, platform (PC or Macintosh), software program used, disk contents, and date. Also include all fonts used.

See below under Scans for line art that has been scanned. Please also see the Captions and List of Illustrations and Illustration Placement and Text References sections, below.


Photographs (sometimes referred to as halftones), in addition to the standard photograph, can include photographs of paintings, historical maps, or other original documents that contain shades of gray.

Photographs submitted as part of your art program should be as crisp and distinct as possible: in every generation of reproduction, there is an unavoidable loss of fidelity to the original. This applies to electronic files as well as to photographic prints.

If a photograph is to be reproduced as a black-and-white halftone, please submit a photographic print of high quality to the Press. We prefer 8 x 10 prints but will accept 5 x 7, and they should be on glossy stock, untrimmed, and unmounted. Halftones may be submitted as digital files as long as the files are in compliance with our guidelines. (See below under Scans and Digital Photographs.)

Note that digital scans printed out on photographic paper are not considered of high enough quality for print reproduction. Professional printing of original digital photography may be acceptable, but because we prefer to work with the “first” generation of art (or as close to the first as possible), the digital file itself would be best in such cases.

If your acquisitions editor has agreed to a small number of color illustrations, these should be supplied as 35 mm (or 4- by 5-inch) transparencies or color prints, although they may also be supplied as digital files (see below).

On self-sticking, permanent labels, indicate figure numbers, and place an arrow to indicate the top if there could be a question of correct orientation. Apply the labels to the backs of the photographs themselves.

If only a portion of the photograph is to be used, clearly indicate your preferred cropping on both of the two photocopies/printouts of the image supplied with the manuscript. In addition, if there could be a question of orientation, draw an arrow on both sets of copies to indicate the top. Never mark the original. If you are submitting photographs, separate them with blank sheets of white paper to help prevent any bleed-through or smudging that might result from your labeling.

See below under “Scans” for photographs that have been scanned. Please also see the “Captions and List of Illustrations” and “Illustration Placement and Text References” sections, below.


Scans and Digital Artwork
Scans and digital artwork can present a host of problems in print production that become time-consuming to resolve. Problems in digital files may render images poor in quality. Images that appear clear and of high quality on a computer screen may nevertheless not reproduce well in print form. Below follow some guidelines on submitting electronic artwork:


Scans should be made at 100 percent (full size of the original) from clear, sharp originals, and created in grayscale (not color), with no sharpening features applied, at a minimum of 300ppi. Files should be provided as tiffs. If the original is smaller than 5 x 7, the resolution will need to be increased accordingly (typically to 600ppi).

Line art scans should be made from clear, sharp originals at 100 percent (full size of the original) in black and white (bitmap) at 1200ppi and saved as tiff files. (Again, EPS files are generally usable.) If the original is smaller than 5 x 7, double the resolution to 2400ppi. See above under “Line Art” for line art that has been prepared in digital form.

Do not digitally alter any image you scan or have scanned (including sharpening, descreening, and similar modifications).Please always use an established graphic arts service or library service for scanning.


Digital Photographs
For photographs taken with a digital camera, the camera should be of high quality, with at least 4 megapixels, the photographs should be taken as 300ppi tiffs, and the lowest possible level of sharpening should be applied, with no editing done to the image file. We can accept photographs taken as jpgs when the resolution is 300ppi and no changes have been made to the file.

When providing digital files for color art, you must also submit a “match” print to be used in trying to reproduce the exact color in printing.


Maps, Charts, Graphs
Please contact us if you are planning to use a map in your book. Do not attempt to create or commission your own map. We can recommend a cartographer who will provide quality maps drafted to our specifications. If map files already exist, we will review them, but please be aware that GIS software and other map-making programs are difficult to adapt to our purposes.

In preparing maps, charts, and graphs, use special care to ensure consistency both internally and with the text in style, spelling, capitalization, and abbreviation as well as in size of lettering.

Charts, graphs, timelines, and other such graphics should be prepared in a vector-based program, such as Adobe Illustrator, and saved in the EPS file format. They should not include color. Please submit all accompanying fonts and necessary underlying data. Please also supply the drawing application files.


When downloading from a repository source, if the repository provides a JPEG, please submit the file as is. Do not open and resave, as resaving alters the electronic file. It is extremely important that JPEG files not be altered in any way prior to submission. To rename files, do not open files and save with a new name; always rename using the file directory.

Downloads must be high-resolution (at least 300ppi at printable size) JPEG or TIFF files to be usable.


All digital images must be accompanied by two sets of labeled laser prints representing the scan/map/photograph at actual size.

All digital files for color art must be accompanied by a “match” print against which we can proof at the printing stage.

As noted below, we generally do not return copies of scans or of digital art, so please be sure to retain your own copies if needed.


Unusable Art
When considering the illustration program for your book, please note that we cannot accept any of the following as final art for reproduction:

  • Photocopies or any art derived from photocopies
  • Non-professional scans
  • Scans of slides
  • Prints (including glossy) produced from digital files
  • Photographs of two-dimensional media, including photographs of book pages, newspapers, drawings, other photographs, paintings, etc.
  • Second-generation images, such as scans from books (an exception may be made if the original source material is absolutely unavailable); however, if no other alternatives are viable, the author may supply the book from which the image came, for us to scan professionally
  • Maps not prepared by a Press-approved cartographer
  • Images copied or downloaded from the Internet (an exception may be made for certain repositories, such as the Library of Congress, where large, high-resolution files are available for download)
  • Digital images in PDF format
  • MS Word or MS PowerPoint files
  • Poor-quality images derived from microfilm/microfiche
  • Color graphs, charts, tables, etc.


Illustration Numbering
Except in MSS with complex art programs, both line art and photographs are generally labeled and numbered in one sequence as “figures.” Maps are sometimes an exception and are numbered separately in the order in which they appear. Tables, too, are separately numbered. Once the final art has been selected, place all the art in the order in which it is referenced or is to appear in the MS and number it consecutively (see instructions below). Do not skip numbers, and be sure to assign each image a separate number. Label a “frontispiece” as such and do not include it in the numbered series.

Only in rare cases will you need to designate the parts of an illustration by the use of letters or numbers. Whenever possible, refer in the caption to left, center, upper, lower right, foreground, etc., unless the Press suggests part labels such as a, b, c. Do not physically label any illustration, photo print, or digital file.


Captions and List of Illustrations
A list of illustrations and a separate captions list that incorporates credit lines must accompany the MS. The list of illustrations, if included in the final book, will appear after the table of contents; each caption, of course, will appear with its corresponding illustration.


Numbered captions are necessary for all figures (photographs and line art). Do not type the captions (legends) on the original illustrations or each on its own page. Instead, type all captions, double-spaced, in list form in a single electronic file (e.g., captions.doc). A caption should contain the number of the illustration, a complete explanation or description of the art shown, and, in parentheses, any credit line stipulated by the rights holder or owner, as in


Figure 8. Kenneth B. Clark observing child with black and white dolls. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, KBC MSS; photograph by Gordon Parks, courtesy of Gordon Parks)




Figure 1. No. 6, Robert Slutzky, 1996. Acrylic on canvas, 66 x 66 in. (Private collection; photograph courtesy of The Cooper Union School of Architecture Archive, NY)


If the illustration is in the public domain or otherwise does not require a credit line, please include information about the source.

Captions should typically (although there will be exceptions) be brief but complete. Use your actual text to discuss the point of the illustration. Include one copy of the captions list with the MS (numbered in the manuscript after the bibliography) and a duplicate copy with the illustrations. Include a separate memo itemizing by caption number any special instructions about cropping, pairing with other illustrations, sizing, or suggested placement in the book. This memo should also call to our attention any details discussed in text or captions that need to be particularly clear or legible.


List of Illustrations
Although not all illustrated books require a list of illustrations, we ask that you create one if your book contains illustrations, and we will determine whether it should be included in the final book. (As a rule, multiauthor volumes do not carry lists of illustrations, nor do books with very few or very many illustrations. The central issues are the intrinsic interest of the illustrations and whether enough information given in the list is of real use to the reader.) The front-matter list of illustrations contains descriptions that are more concise than those found in the captions; this list does not contain credit lines. (When you are creating the list of illustrations, it might also help you to remember that here the illustrations are listed together, whereas the captions appear separately, each with its appropriate illustration.)

As an example, the photograph cited above was identified in the front-matter illustrations list as


Kenneth Clark and child with dolls


Begin the list of illustrations on a new page after the contents page in your front-matter file. Type each brief description on its own line in the same order in which the illustrations are to appear in the book.


A full treatment of the best ways to present large amounts of detailed information (usually in tabular numerical form called statistical tables) can be found in chapter 13 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition. Please review the material in that chapter carefully if submitting tables. A few considerations may be useful here, however.

Tables can prove an effective means of communicating information quickly and clearly, if thought out and presented well, but they can also prove puzzling to the reader if not presented clearly. Sometimes a few simple sentences in the text will convey what needs conveying more easily. However, if created carefully, tables can prove extremely useful.

Like everything else in the MS, tables should be typed double-spaced throughout, even if this results in running a large table onto several sheets. Use the same typeface and size, 12-point Courier New, used elsewhere in the MS.

Each table should be in its own electronic file, identified with the table number and author last name: for example, table01Smith.doc, table02Smith.doc, etc.

All tables should be reasonably uniform in format and layout. Titles, headings, and body structure need to be consistent in form and diction. Guard against “Adolescent alcohol-addiction rates” in one table metamorphosing into “Rates of teenage alcohol addiction” in another. Table titles should be typed sentence-style, capitalizing only the first word and proper nouns. Exercise special care so that proper names, key terms, even single words used in the tables match those used in the text—and of course in other tables.

Abbreviations can be useful to keep columns readable and their size manageable. Apply abbreviations logically and consistently within a single table and among tables.

Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are referenced in the text and numbered separately from other artwork, that is, as “tables.” Unlike note numbers (which start with 1 in each chapter), table numbers continue consecutively through the text, continuing from one chapter to the next. Two types of MSS are exceptions to this rule: a collection of pieces by various authors, and a monograph with an unusually large number of tables. In these, a system of double enumeration should be used: table 3.4 would be the fourth table in the third chapter.

Note that table titles, unlike figure or photo captions, are typed as part of the table file itself. Do not place table titles with captions for other art.

Each table should have an accompanying text reference (see the next section). Please identify the position of each table in the text using the system given in the section below, “Illustration Placement and Text References.”

If your MS contains many tables, create a list titled “Tables” on a new page in the front matter after the contents page and after the list of illustrations (if any).

If you have any questions about the construction of tables, please consult your acquisitions editor or the MS editor.


Illustration Placement and Text References
All artwork (line art, photographs, and tables) must have its placement flagged in the MS. To indicate illustration placement, type the figure number in angle brackets on a separate line just below the paragraph to which you would like the art keyed, like this:

<fig. 1>

A separate issue is whether the text itself will contain references to the illustrations. All tables must have corresponding text references; much other art will, as well. Always spell out the word “table”; abbreviate “figure” when it appears within parentheses in your text:


(fig. 3)

(table 7)

As table 6 indicates, fewer . . .

The expedition’s route is shown in figure 2.


Jacket or Cover Art
If your hardcover book is to be jacketed, or if the Press is publishing your work as a paperback book, your acquisitions editor will ask for your ideas about jacket or cover art, for our consideration. If your image suggestion is approved and it is agreed that you will supply the art, please send a reproduction-quality black-and-white print or color transparency, as appropriate and agreed on, to your acquisitions editor. Enclose with the cover illustration a sheet with the caption, including complete credit line, and a photocopy of the letter granting permission. (In such cases you are also typically responsible for permissions fees.) Your request for permission from the rights holder must stipulate that the art will be used as cover or jacket art.


Final Points on Submitting Artwork

  • Please submit all final “original” art—photographic prints, transparencies, and/or electronic files—when you submit your final MS for editing.
  • If your illustration program is substantial, original art and an accompanying Art Log should be submitted at least two months before the final MS is due. This permits a thorough review of all materials, and in the event that some art is determined to be inadequate for print reproduction, allows you time to find replacements.
  • All images should be saved on a single disk (CD or DVD); text files and table files should be submitted on a separate disk. Each piece of electronic art and each table should be saved in its own electronic file.
  • Two sets of labeled and numbered copies (either photocopies or printouts of the electronic files, with identification marked on the front), two sets of captions, an Art Log, a Permissions Log, and copies of any needed permission letters should accompany the final MS and art.
  • All original art should be appropriately labeled and numbered. Hard copies (e.g., glossy photographs) should be labeled on the back with a figure number and description. Electronic files should be given filenames that incorporate the figure number, your last name, and the appropriate extension for the format (e.g., 01Smith.tif, 02Smith.tif). Table files should be similarly named (table01Smith.doc, table02Smith.doc).
  • Copies of illustrations, tables, and captions should be pulled out from the interior of the MS; please do not intersperse copies (or electronic versions) of individual illustrations, tables, or captions in the manuscript itself.
  • Copies (photocopies or printouts) should be numbered and labeled on the front (Fig. 5, Blenheim garden; include filename if from an electronic file). All information on cropping should be clearly marked on the copies.


Note: Although our production department makes all good effort to handle art expeditiously and carefully, we cannot be responsible for lease fees or damaged art. We do not return CD-ROMs with digital art unless specifically asked to do so early in the process. Please retain a copy, for your own use, of all electronic files.