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Vause, Erika


In the Red and in the Black
Debt, Dishonor, and the Law in France between Revolutions

Erika Vause

"The most dishonorable act that can dishonor a man." Such is Félix Grandet’s unsparing view of bankruptcy, adding that even a highway robber—who at least "risks his own life in attacking you"—is worthier of respect. Indeed, the France of Balzac’s day was an unforgiving place for borrowers. Each... More