You are here

Handling Proof and Creating an Index

Handling Proof

We will e-mail you a pdf of the page proofs (the pages with the type set as it will appear in the final book), for you to print out for use in proofreading and indexing, and we will also e-mail you the final, edited Word files used by the typesetter. We strongly recommend that you make at least one proofreading pass from a printed copy of the proofs.

            The University of Virginia Press cannot provide professional proofreading services, so the responsibility for reading the proof against the manuscript is yours. We recommend that you read the page proof at least twice. We generally allow three weeks for you to read the proof, four weeks if you are also finalizing the index.

An important caution: Please note that we are concerned about electronic piracy. You will see that the page proofs are typically watermarked, to indicate that the work is copyrighted. We ask that you use the pdf only to view and print out your proofing and indexing copies and that you not allow use or viewing by others. Once your work is complete, please delete the electronic file. Unauthorized distribution of the pdf is considered a violation of our contract and copyright.

Proofreading Tasks

Your project editor will discuss with you how best to convey corrections. If changes are light, you may be able to e-mail scanned pages with corrections, to fax pages with marked changes, or simply to list requested changes in an e-mail.  (Please remember to include in your list of corrections the page numbers for the running heads to the notes section—see below for details.)  If returning a marked-up full paper printout, it is important that your corrections be in colored ink or pencil (not black, and preferably not blue) so that they stand out on the printed proof page. If you spot anything unusual or if you have questions, please contact your project editor to discuss.

            Please note errors introduced by the typesetter (i.e., text is okay in the final, edited manuscript/Word files) as "PE," printer's error. Any errors introduced by the copyeditor or UVaP should be noted as "HA" (house alteration). Others should be noted as "AA" (author's alteration).

            During your first pass, it is best to compare the proof against the manuscript character by character, reading all proof pages against all manuscript pages to be sure no text has been dropped or misset.

            As you are proofreading, check to be sure that the typesetter has set special symbols correctly as indicated on the edited manuscript, including those added by the copyeditor, such as en dashes. (Slightly longer than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash, the en dash is most often found between digits that express a range, as in 44–48, but it can also be used between words, as in "pre-Civil War legislature," which would be set as "pre–Civil War legislature.")

            Respond to any printer's queries inserted by the compositor; these generally appear as computer-inserted marginal notes on the proof pages. Your in-house editor may have noted additional queries for you, as well.

            While you are proofreading, examine end-of-line hyphenation, which is generally computer-produced rather than hand-inserted by the typesetter. If a break seems awkward, to determine the correct division of a word or proper name, consult the most recent editions of Webster's Collegiate, Biographical, and Geographical dictionaries. You might also need to consult foreign-language dictionaries.  We label these as "bad breaks."

            Scan the proof for "stacks," that is, text typed correctly but resulting in the same word falling as either the first or the last word on three or more consecutive lines or four or more stacked hyphens at the end of consecutive lines. If possible, the typesetter will rerun that text in order to avoid the stack.

            Check running heads against the running heads manuscript page, check that folios (page numbers) progress correctly, supply page numbers for any in-text cross-references, verify note numbering, and fill in page numbers on the table of contents page if not done so already by your in-house editor. Read chapter titles, subheads, and captions carefully: errors slip through easily in display type.

            If the running heads for the notes section of your book are to include page numbers rather than chapter numbers, please insert those "fills" now. The first page number in a running head is that for the first note number appearing on that page (disregard a note beginning on the previous page). The second page number in a running head is that for the last note number appearing on that page (this note may carry over to the next page in the notes).

            The second time you read the proof, read all proof pages through, comparing them to the manuscript only for reference: this is your last chance to catch errors, and reading the pages as your readers will is a good way for you to catch mistakes.

Checking Artwork

The page proofs will contain any art that is to appear in your book (photographs, maps, etc.) as "For Placement Only" (FPO) art. FPO art does not represent the quality of the art that will appear in your book, but you should still check it carefully. Proofread typeset captions against the manuscript copy for accuracy and completeness, and if art is referred to in the text, be sure that titles and descriptions in the text match those in the captions. Verify that the art is located correctly and that it has not been cropped incorrectly or reversed. If art has been reordered, confirm that the list of illustrations and captions have been corrected.

            Proofread all typeset tables carefully against the manuscript copy, and check tables against one another in proof to be sure they've been treated consistently. Treat camera-ready tables as FPO art.

Author's Charges

You should clearly correct and then mark all errors made by the printer (that is, the manuscript is correct but the proof is not) as PEs. Additional changes on proof, however, should be minimal and limited to true corrections rather than stylistic tweaks.

            Your contract with the Press specifies that you as author are to pay for all AAs above a certain percentage of the total composition cost. Thus, if composition costs $2,000 and if the allowance stipulated in your contract is 5 percent, we absorb the costs of such corrections up to $100, but you as author will be billed for changes in excess of that amount. Typesetters' rates vary, but a single, minor change will cost several dollars. Text changes at this stage can also result in new errors' being unintentionally introduced and in scheduling delays.

            Keep in mind that even a small insertion may require resetting an entire paragraph and may even cause repaging (which in turn creates problems with page numbers cited in the index). If an error of fact must be corrected, you should try to limit new text to exactly the same number of characters and spaces as the deleted text.

Creating the Index

Few authors are not daunted by the simultaneous tasks of reading the page proof and creating the index to their book. This is why we encourage you not to do these simultaneously: get a head start on the index as soon as the manuscript has been copyedited and transmitted for design and production.

At that time, you can select the terms to be included in the index and set them up in a word-processor file. Bear in mind that terms, names, and titles corrected during editing should be corrected in your index, as well. Be sure to make the same changes in spelling, capitalization, underlining (italicization), and such, as were made during editing. Once you have the page proofs in hand, you need only add the page numbers and print out the final index copy. Our reference for indexing is the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), 16th edition.

            Your project editor would be happy to review a draft of your index. The page proofs will demand your—and our—full attention when they arrive, so it is important to resolve possible problems with the index well before then.

            Whole books are devoted to the steps of creating the index, and we strongly recommend that you refer to a recent book on indexing. Start with the indexing chapter in the CMS (offprints of the indexing chapter, Indexes, ISBN 978-0-226-83614-0, are available from the University of Chicago Press, 1-800-621-2736 or, or from the usual online bookstores, for about $10); Nancy C. Mulvany's Indexing Books (University of Chicago Press, 1994) provides even more detailed instructions.

Index Style

Virginia uses letter-by-letter alphabetization of entries and subentries; CMS 16.58 and 16.59 contain a comprehensive explanation of this system, and CMS 16.61 offers useful examples.

            Subentries should be alphabetized, although entries for the subject of a biography may be placed in chronological sequence, to provide a quick summary of the subject's life and career.

            For main entries, disregard initial prepositions, articles, and conjunctions in the alphabetization scheme and place these at the end of the entry, preceded by a comma. However, if the title of a work begins with a preposition or a conjunction, the title's word order should be retained—e.g., preposition: Of Mice and Men, alphabetize under O; conjunction: And the Band Played On, alphabetize under A; article: Tale of Two Cities, A, alphabetize under T. For a proper name beginning with a preposition, use the alphabetization traditional for that person. For subentries, disregard initial prepositions, articles, and conjunctions in the alphabetization scheme, but retain them in their initial position.

  •             Capitalize the initial letter of an entry only when it is always capped in the text.
  •             Retain all diacritics as in the text.
  •             Use underlining for titles, foreign words, and other words or phrases consistently italicized in the text. Check the edited version of the manuscript to verify these matters.
  •             Distinguish between consecutive (43, 44, 45) and inclusive (43-45) cites.
  •             Elide continuous page numbers over 99 as follows: 108-9, 163-64, 168-70, 299-301, 1068-70, but 100-102, 200-211. Continuous page numbers under 100 are not elided: 9-18, 71-74.
  •             Use the "run-in" style for subentries (see under Index Examples).
  •             The following run-in styles are used for cross-references:

. See also dogs; giraffes; zebras
. See also dogs, training of; leashes
. See dogs
. See under names of breeds

Note that cross-referenced entries or subentries are not underlined; do underline, however, phrases that do not themselves appear as actual entries or subentries ("names of breeds").

            Front matter and bibliographical notes are not usually indexed, although discursive notes should be indexed. When indexing notes, give the page number on which the actual text of the note appears (not the page in the main text to which the note is tied), along with the note number  (378n12).

            If illustrations require indexing, use underlined page numbers to indicate an illustration (39). In addition, please create a new line of text before the first index entry stating "Italicized page numbers refer to illustrations."

Index Examples

Indexes are set in paragraph form, with the subentries run in (continuous with the text), rather than with each subentry set on a new line. If you have sub-subentries, use em dashes to stand in for the repeated subentry, unless your index contains many sub-subentries. In the latter case, use the indented style only for those entries containing sub-subentries (refer to the CMS indexing chapter). Note the punctuation and the form for continuous numbers in the following example. (Since many of the entries are invented, however, do not use the following as an example of a well-organized, logical index.) Your final index copy should be double-spaced.

California: agriculture, 17-20; early legislation, 34, 40, 42; --, reform of, 44-46, 49, 52, 56

Card, Juanita, 55, 98, 100-101, 101; election of, 105-6, 107; as mayor, 118, 125, 286

Cardenas, José, 111

Chicago Defender, 33

"Child, the Family, and the City, The" (seminar), 130

child guidance, 10, 61-62, 183; agencies for, 13, 14, 15-17, 258-61

children: cognitive development of, 10, 243, 245; gifted, 40, 126; self-esteem of, 21–24; sexual abuse of, 248

Children Apart (conference), 45, 94

Children of Sánchez, The (Lewis), 135

Children's Aid Society, 13, 80, 189

Children's Court, 189, 272n47

Children's Court Psychiatric Clinic, 15

child welfare reform, 1–3, 7, 61, 102-5

Christian Mission Society, 227–28


Danks, Rheanna, 19, 38

D'Annunzio, Emelia, 150; on immigration laws, 61, 62, 280n30; and Latino groups, 34, 49; as mayor, 60, 61, 272n46

dartboards, 203-5

de Bary, Heinrich, 201

derealization, 11, 39, 50, 89

ducat, 106-9, 108

Du Cerceau, Baptiste Androuet, 159, 159-61

duckweed, 99-101


immigration: of Brazilians, 38-41, 111-13, 115; laws restricting, 5, 32, 61-62, 144, 174

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 70, 71, 167

immigration policy, 55, 72, 137-38

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, 41, 81


Mariel boatlift, 22, 56, 71

Marielitos, 57, 58, 208nn2-3

Marxism, 8-9, 185, 186, 207n9

McDugan, Simon, 46, 193

McDugan riots, 46, 74, 112, 189, 190

McMillian, Rebecca, 93, 148, 170, 209n13

"McWorld," 11, 21. See also under "Jihad"

Medici, Lorenzo de', 195, 196

Meeks v. Dade County, 51

Mesa Rotunda, La, 51

Miami Herald, 44, 45, 52, 73, 153-54, 202

Miami Partners for Progress, 154. See also Berwick, G. A.; Palanca, Katherine; partners, business

Miami Riot of 1980, The (Porter and Dunn), 76

Miami's New Group, 51

"Miami Syndrome," 96

Miami Times, 59, 153, 54, 202

mobilizationism. See instrumentalism

myths, about Cubans, 109-11


New South Magazine, 73-75, 112

Newsweek, 104-9

New Yorker, 78-79, 152

New York Times, 10, 125

Ney, John, 61, 98

Formatting the Index

If you have created the index in a program other than a word-processing program, please convert the file to standard Word or WordPerfect. Use your word processor's hanging-indent feature for entries of more than one line. The first line should fall at the left margin (1 inch), and other lines in the entry should be indented ½ inch. Please do not insert tabs, hard returns, or spaces to achieve this hanging indent.

            Format the index file for 12-point New Courier and full double-spacing throughout, using one-inch margins; do not divide the index into columns. Set line justification for left only (this document has left justification; the right margin is "ragged"). Use underlining, not italics or boldface. Set page numbering in the upper-right-hand corner.

            Be sure that the page numbers you note are the page numbers that appear in the running head on the book page rather than the page number of the pdf (i.e., the page numbering of the pdf may include front matter pages as well, so page 3 of the book's main text might appear as page 21 of the full pdf).

            Please submit the final electronic file to your in-house project editor either by e-mail or on a flash drive.

To the Freelance Professional Indexer

If you have questions about these instructions, please contact the author's project editor at the Press directly; you can get his or her name and contact information from the author.

            Please feel free to submit the final index file by e-mail.

Conveying Proof Corrections and Index to the Press

Please convey corrections to your project editor along with the Word file for your index. Your project editor will carefully review all corrections and will copyedit the index to ensure that it is styled consistently. The Press reserves the right to veto editorial or nonessential changes that might delay the production schedule for your book or prove too costly.

            The proof will be sent to the typesetter for correction, along with the index manuscript for typesetting. Your project editor will review corrected proof and the typeset index. Once the pages are sent to the printer, she or he will also check bluelines, F&Gs (folded and gathered sheets), and jacket and case material. After approval of all these elements, the pages will be printed and the books bound and shipped. You will receive an advance copy of your book shortly thereafter, and the rest of your contractual copies will follow.