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Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia

Ervin L. Jordan, Jr.
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On the eve of the Civil War, more Afircan-Americans lived in Virginia than in any other state- 490,000 slaves and 59,000 free blacks- and they were active participants in the single most dynamic event to shape the American consciousness. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia is the first comprehensive study of Civil War Afro-Virginian history and culture. Through it we witness every aspect of black life: slave and free; rural and urban; homefront and battlefield; at work on plantations but also in munitions factories in Richmond; as wartime Union spies and as soldiers in the Confederate army.